Gynaecology

Gynaecology- is a branch of medicine dealing with the health of the female reproductive system (uterus, vagina, and ovaries). Literally, outside medicine, it means "the science of women". Its counterpart is andrology, which deals with medical issues specific to the male reproductive system.

Almost all modern gynaecologists are also obstetricians (see obstetrics and gynaecology). In many areas, the specialties of gynaecology and obstetrics overlap

The main conditions dealt with by a gynaecologist are:

  • Cancer and pre-cancerous diseases of the reproductive organs including ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, and vulva
  • Incontinence of urine
  • Amenorrhoea (absent menstrual periods)
  • Dysmenorrhoea (painful menstrual periods)
  • Infertility
  • Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual periods); a common indication for hysterectomy
  • Prolapse of pelvic organs
  • Infections of the vagina (vaginitis), cervix and uterus (including fungal, bacterial, viral, and protozoal)

 

There is some crossover in these areas. For example, a woman with urinary incontinence may be referred to a urologist. Some of the common operations that gynaecologists perform include:

  • Dilation and curettage (removal of the uterine contents for various reasons, including completing a partial miscarriage and diagnostic sampling for dysfunctional uterine bleeding refractive to medical therapy)
  • Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus)
  • Oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries)
  • Tubal ligation (a type of permanent sterilization)
  • Hysteroscopy (inspection of the uterus cavity)
  • Diagnostic laparoscopy – used to diagnose and treat sources of pelvic and abdominal pain; perhaps most famously used to provide a definitive diagnosis of endometriosis.
  • Exploratory laparotomy – may be used to investigate the level of progression of benign or malignant disease, or to assess and repair damage to the pelvic organs.
  • Various surgical treatments for urinary incontinence, including cystoscopy and sub-urethral slings.
  • Surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse, including correction of cystocele and rectocele.
  • Cervical Excision Procedures (including cryosurgery) – removal of the surface of the cervix containing pre-cancerous cells which have been previously identified on Pap smear

 

Uterus didelphys   Myomectomy and ovarian cystectomy
 
 Myomectomy    Uterine Fibroids